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Immunogenetics and Antibody Detection

Genotyping of immune response genes and characterisation of antibodies to self and non-self

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Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is not the only immune response gene for which variants have been identified, and where variants can impact the immune response either directly or through sensitisation to non-self (allogeneic) variants.

In addition to HLA genotyping, we perform PCR-RSSO genotyping of additional polymorphic gene systems:

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Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor (KIR)

KIR genetics is complex: different KIR genes may or may not be present, giving rise to genetic diversity.  Like HLA, polymorphic variants of the KIR genes also exist; different alleles may exhibit functional differences.

We perform PCR-RSSO presence/absence testing for the following Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor (KIR) genes:

Activating KIR genes

KIR2DS1, KIR2DS2, KIR2DS3, KIR2DS5, KIR3DS1, KIR2DS4*

Inhibitory KIR genes

KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2, KIR2DL3, KIR2DL4, KIR2DL5*, KIR3DL1, KIR3DL2, KIR3DL3

Pseudogenes

KIR2DP1, KIR3DP1

* Including non-expressed null alleles

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MHC Class I Related Chain A (MICA)

Like the Classical HLA genes, the MICA gene is polymorphic; this genetic difference has been shown to have functional and clinical consequences.

Mismatching for MICA in solid organ and blood and marrow transplantation is associated with inferior transplant outcomes.  Transplant recipients may also develop anti-MICA antibodies which have been associated with transplant rejection.

We perform intermediate-resolution MICA genotyping by PCR-RSSO. Our experienced scientists are able to suggest the probable MICA alleles based upon population frequency information.

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Antibody Detection

We use Luminex xMAP® technology to detect antibodies (presence/absence testing) and are able to further characterise antigen specificity as required.

We use the most comprehensive antigen panels available.

Our assays are able to detect and characterise human IgG antibodies directed against:

  • HLA Class I (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C) and Class II (HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1).
  • Human Neutrophil Antigens (HNA):  HNA-1a, HNA-1b, HNA-1c, HNA-2, HNA-3a, HNA-3b, HNA-4a, HNA-5a and HNA-5b.
  • MHC Class I Related Chain A (MICA).
  • A variety of putative autoantibodies.

Whether you require antibody detection and specification in the sera of research subjects or the supernatant of cell lines, our team are happy to provide advice when planning your study or interpreting your results.

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“We have been using the HLA Typing Services at VH Bio for over three years and have always found them to be very efficient and extremely helpful. Communication is excellent, with any queries being dealt with promptly and efficiently.”
“VH Bio is an excellent company for HLA typing and they always deliver the results ahead of time. I highly recommend them!”

Why Choose Us?

Quality-Assured Service

We are proudly accredited to the ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management standard and the ISO 14001:2015 Environmental Management standard.

Excellent Record of Performance

We participate in the relevant UK NEQAS external quality assessment programmes for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics and maintain an excellent record of performance.

A highly competent Laboratory Services team

Over 35 Years Experience

State registered Clinical Scientists and HLA Technical Specialists with a combined experience of 35+ years in Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics.

Qualified in Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics

Our team possess H&I qualifications including British Society for Histocompatibility and immunogenetics (BSHI) Diplomas and Associate membership of the Royal College of Pathologists.

All Results Validated

All results are validated by a scientist trained in good clinical practice and registered with The Health and Care Professionals Council (HCPC).

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PRODUCT AVAILABILITY UPDATE

At VH Bio we remain wholeheartedly dedicated to continuing to serve as your reliable and trusted supply partner, to allow you to focus on the essential work you do.

Both VH Bio and our supply partners continue to be fully operational during the COVID-19 outbreak. We are in regular contact with our suppliers worldwide to ensure continued product availability and as this global situation evolves, we will take all steps necessary to continue providing our customers with high-quality products, information and support.